Science diplomacy: the case for caution

royal-soc-New-frontiers-in-science-diplomacy_DDblog_2One of the frustrations of meetings at which scientists gather to discuss policy-related issues is the speed with which the requirements for evidence-based discussion they would expect in a professional context can go out of the window.

Such has been the issue over the past two days in the meeting jointly organised in London by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Royal Society on the topic “New Frontiers in Science Diplomacy“.

There has been much lively discussion on the value of international collaboration in achieving scientific goals, on the need for researchers to work together on the scientific aspects of global challenges such as climate change and food security, and on the importance of science capacity building in developing countries in order to make this possible.

But there remained little evidence at the end of the meeting on how useful it was to lump all these activities together under the umbrella term of “science diplomacy”.

More significantly, although numerous claims were made during the conference about the broader social and political value of scientific collaboration – for example, in establishing a framework for collaboration in other areas, and in particular reducing tensions between rival countries – little was produced to demonstrate whether this hypothesis is true.

If it is not, then some of the arguments made on behalf of “science diplomacy”, and in particular its value as a mechanism for exercising “soft power” in foreign policy, do not stand up to close scrutiny.

Indeed, a case can be made that where scientific projects have successfully involved substantial international collaboration, such success is often heavily dependent on a prior political commitment to cooperation, rather than a mechanism for securing cooperation where the political will is lacking.

Three messages appeared to emerge from the two days of discussion. Firstly, where the political will to collaborate does exist, a joint scientific project can be a useful expression of that will. Furthermore, it can be an enlightening experience for all those directly involved. But it is seldom a magic wand that can secure broader cooperation where none existed before.

Secondly, “science diplomacy” will only become recognised as a useful activity if it is closely defined to cover specific situations (such as the negotiation of major international scientific projects or collaborative research enterprises). As an umbrella term embracing the many ways in which science interacts with foreign policy, it loses much of its impact, and thus its value.

Finally, when it comes to promoting the use of science in developing countries, a terminology based historically on maximising self-interest – the ultimate goal of the diplomat – and on practices through which the rich have almost invariably ended up exploiting the poor, is likely to be counterproductive.

In other words, the discussion seemed to confirm that “science diplomacy” has a legitimate place in the formulation and implementation of policies for science (just as there is a time and place for exercising “soft power” in international relations).

 But the dangers of going beyond this – including the danger of distorting the integrity of science itself, and even alienating potential partners in collaborative projects, particularly in the developing world – were also clearly exposed.

The take-home message: handle with care.

David Dickson, SciDev.Net

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4 Responses to Science diplomacy: the case for caution

  1. Ana Gren says:

    Hello David, thank you for the interesting piece which has prompted me to think about the term Science Diplomacy and hope that something positive comes out of these discussions.

  2. Mike Baker says:

    Do these discussions on Science Diplomacy give the impression that scientists are not diplomats—or no diplomats are scientists.How did you classify Federico Mayor when he was Director General of UNESCO? How do you label scientists who go, for example, to the UNESCO General Conference or FAO, WHO, WMO etc similar events? Are they scientists, diplomats or scientific diplomats? And the scientists who 50 years ago were involved in the negotiations and drafting of the Antarctic Treaty?

  3. Canonne says:

    One thing is missing in this discussion: scientists and diplomacy.
    I refer to ,the “Pugwash Conferences on Science and world Affairs” http://www.pugwash.org , organisation getting together scientists, diplomats, etc. which was very active during the cold war and is still very active regarding some regional conflicts, and of course about nuclear disarmament.
    It’s why Pugwash got the Peace Nobel Price in 1995 with one of its founder, Sir Joseph Rotblat.

  4. scidevnet says:

    In an accompanying editorial on the SciDev.Net website, I referred to the way in which “scientists have formed key links behind-the-scenes when more overt dialogue has been impossible. At the height of the Cold War, for example, scientific organisations provided a conduit for discussing nuclear weapons control.” It was Pugwash that I had in mind when I wrote this.

    (See: http://www.scidev.net/en/editorials/the-limits-of-science-diplomacy.html )

    David Dickson, SciDev.Net

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